1901-1968: US control.

1903: Split from Colombia.

1914: Panama Canal opens.

1930s-40s: Some concessions.

1952-68: Oligarchic government.

1958-1964: Campaign for equal status. Clashes with US troops.

1968: Torrijos coup.

1968-86: The populace benefits.

1977: Canal treaties.

1981: Torrijos killed.

1983: Manuel Noriega commander of armed forces.

1984: US/Noriega election fraud.

1985: Noriega falls from US favour.

1986-1989: Power struggles. US interferes and finally invades to install its chosen government.

1991: Reforms and privatisation.

1992: US sentences Noriega.

1999: Panama takes control of canal.

2004: Torrijos president.