1945: Mussolini executed.

1946: Republic to replace monarchy.

1947: US interferes in elections to prevent Communist party from coming to power. For the next few decades, the CIA, along with American corporations, continues to intervene in Italian elections, pouring in hundreds of millions of dollars and much psychological warfare.

1948: New constitution.

1955: Italy joins UN.

1957: Founder member of EEC.

1970s: US intelligence services instigate and abet rightwing terrorism, in order to halt what it saw as a slide to the left.

1976-78: Communist election gains.

1978: Former Prime Minister Aldo Moro kidnapped and murdered.

1983: Italy's first Socialist prime minister since war.

2002: Euro replaces the lira.