Mussolini, who had been rescued from prison by Germans, is captured and executed by Italian partisans. [1]


Referendum votes for republic to replace monarchy. [1]


Italy cedes land and territories under peace treaty. [1]

Using every trick in the book, the U.S. interfered in the elections to prevent the Communist Party from coming to power legally and fairly. This perversion of democracy was done in the name of "saving democracy" in Italy. The Communists lost. For the next few decades, the CIA, along with American corporations, continued to intervene in Italian elections, pouring in hundreds of millions of dollars and much psychological warfare to block the specter that was haunting Europe. [2] [3]


New constitution. Christian Democrats win elections. [1]


Italy joins European Coal and Steel Community. [1]


Italy joins United Nations. [1]


Founder member of European Economic Community. [1]


Italian Socialist Party joins Christian Democrat-led coalition under Prime Minister Aldo Moro. [1]


US intelligence services instigate and abet rightwing terrorism, in order to halt what it saw as a slide to the left. [4]


Giulio Andreotti becomes prime minister - a post he will hold seven times in 20 years. [1]


Communist election gains lead to voice in policy making. [1]


Former Prime Minister Aldo Moro kidnapped and murdered by fanatical left-wing group, the Red Brigades. Abortion legalised. [1]


Bombing of Bologna station kills 84, linked to right-wing extremists. [1]


Bettino Craxi becomes Italy's first Socialist prime minister since war. [1]


Roman Catholicism loses status as state religion. [1]


Communists rename themselves Democratic Party of the Left. [1]


Revelations of high level corruption spark several years of arrests and investigations. [1]

Top anti-Mafia prosecutor, Giovanni Falcone, his wife and three bodyguards killed in car bomb attack. [1]


Bribery scandal leads to Craxi's resignation as leader of Socialist Party. He later flees the country, is tried and sentenced in absentia to imprisonment but dies in Tunisia in 2000. [1]


March - Freedom Alliance wins election. The coalition, which includes Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia , Northern League and neo-Fascist National Alliance, collapses by end of year following clashes with anticorruption magistrates and a battle with the trade unions over pension reform. [1]


Lamberto Dini heads government of technocrats. Austerity budget. [1]


Centre-left Olive Tree alliance wins election. Romano Prodi becomes prime minister. [1]


Earthquakes strike Umbria region, causing extensive damage to Basilica of St Francis of Assisi. Four killed. [1]

Prodi government loses confidence vote. Massimo D'Alema becomes prime minister. [1]


Carlo Ciampi becomes president. [1]


April - D'Alema resigns after poor regional election results and is replaced by Giuliano Amato. [1]


May/June - A centre-right coalition, led by Silvio Berlusconi of the Forza Italia party, wins the general elections. [1]

Berlusconi forms new coalition government which includes the leaders of two right-wing parties, Gianfranco Fini of the National Alliance and Umberto Bossi of the Northern League as well as the pro-European Renato Ruggiero who becomes foreign minister. [1]

October - First constitutional referendum since 1946 sees vote in favour of major constitutional change giving greater autonomy to the country's 20 regions in tax, education and environment policies. [1]


January - Euro replaces the lira. [1]

Foreign Minister Renato Ruggiero resigns in protest at the Eurosceptical views of right-wing cabinet colleagues. [1]

February/March - Controversy as parliament approves bill enabling Berlusconi to keep control of his businesses. [1]

October - Lower house of parliament passes controversial criminal reform bill which critics allege is intended to help PM Berlusconi avoid trial on corruption charges. [1]


May/June - Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi appears in Milan court at his own trial on corruption charges relating to business dealings in the 1980s. He asserts that he is the victim of a conspiracy by a politically motivated judiciary. [1]

June - Mr Berlusconi's trial halted after parliament passes law granting immunity from prosecution to five holders of key state posts, including the prime minister. [1]

November - Italy declares national day of mourning after 19 of its servicemen are killed in a suicide bomb attack on their base in southern Iraq. [1]

Multi-billion euro fraud uncovered at Parmalat food-manufacturing giant. The company is declared insolvent. [1]


January - Constitutional Court throws out law granting Mr Berlusconi and other top state post holders immunity from prosecution. Mr Berlusconi's trial resumes in April. [1]

October - Forced expulsion from island of Lampedusa of hundreds of African asylum seekers criticised by UN. [1]

December - After a trial lasting four years, Prime Minister Berlusconi is cleared of corruption. [1]